Louis XIII. Again, while Henry IV. Henry IV. But his contemporaries inform us that the monarch chafed under the yoke of the great statesmen whom he could not but admire. We are told that he both envied and feared him, without whom, to use the words of Mme. By keeping power in the hands of one who dwarfed him, when by a word he could have relegated him into obscurity; by sacrificing his jealousy to the glory of France; he gained a victory over self such as we may seldom find in the annals of monarchy.
But alas! They show us that Louis never ceased to love the Cardinal, or to confide entirely in him.
Every line manifests the fact that, while their minds were of very unequal calibre, they were equally devoted to the welfare of their country. And what was the secret, demands M. Topin, by which Richelieu ever preserved the full confidence of his sovereign? He never acted but for the good of the State, and he never kept the King in ignorance of his projects. The most ambitious and able intriguer could scarcely hope to supplant Richelieu in the heart of him who was informed of every project immediately on its conception.
When separated far from each other, even though, as was generally the case, the Cardinal enjoyed unlimited powers, couriers were constantly bearing from Richelieu to the King detailed accounts of the public business.
And we notice that generally it was Louis who formed the decisive resolution, even though the genius of his Minister may have prepared the royal mind for such action. In fact, many reports of the Cardinal bear marginal notes which indicate that Louis frequently resolved on a course diametrically opposite to that advised by the former. When the King was not with the army, he assisted at every meeting of his council, and clearly asserted his will.
But for persistence in following the path once chosen, for firmness and energy in maintaining their common system, we must place Louis XIII.
It might interest the reader were we to quote extensibely from the correspondence so fortunately rescued from oblivion by the researches of M. Topin, but our space confines us to one letter. This resulted in all the French interests in Acadia being restored. In Brazil , the colony of Equinoctial France was established in , but only lasted 4 years until it was eliminated by the Portuguese.
Also in , Marie de' Medici incorporated the merchants of Dieppe and other harbours to found the Company of the Moluccas. In , an armed expedition composed of three ships crew, cannon and called the "Fleet of Montmorency" under General Augustin de Beaulieu was sent from Honfleur, to fight the Dutch in the Far East. After waging an unsuccessful war in Languedoc , he took refuge in Flanders.
This marriage followed a tradition of cementing military and political alliances between the Catholic powers of France and Spain with royal marriages. The marriage was only briefly happy, and the King's duties often kept them apart. After twenty-three years of marriage and four stillbirths, Anne finally gave birth to a son on 5 September , the future Louis XIV. As another sign of gratitude, according to several interpretations, seven months before his birth, France was dedicated by Louis XIII to the Virgin Mary , who, many believed, had interceded for the perceived miracle.
Also, Louis XIII himself is said to have expressed his scepticism with regard to the miracle after his son's birth. This illegitimate son was later jailed and his face hidden beneath an iron mask see the Man in the Iron Mask. There is no evidence that Louis kept mistresses a distinction that earned him the title "Louis the Chaste " , but several reports suggest that he may have been homosexual.
The prolonged temporal gap between the queen's pregnancies may have been a result of Louis XIII's aversion to heterosexuality, a matter of great political consequence, since it took the couple more than 20 years of marriage before Louis XIV's birth. Tallemant described how on a royal journey, the King "sent M.
In this long comparison he speaks admirably of the two whom we knew; but he has discovered the third, of whom we knew nothing, at least in his complete and sublime entireness. Built on the Johns Hopkins University Campus. Featured Refinements see all. Lloyd Moote. Henry IV had tried to defuse some of the country's religious conflict with the Edict of Nantes in , which granted some religious freedom to the Protestants, but his actions only upset some of the country's Catholic majority. Joseph Barsalou physician Relief of Genoa. The cardboard rope-handled box has some scratches as seen in pictures.
According to his biographer A. Lloyd Moote,.
Either of these major ailments, or the accumulation of minor problems, may have killed him, not to mention physiological weaknesses that made him prone to disease or his doctors' remedies of enemas and bleedings , which continued right to his death. In the sphere of the men's fashion , Louis helped introduce the wearing of wigs among men in  that became fashionable for the first time since antiquity.
This would be a dominant style among men in European and European-influenced countries for nearly years until the fashion changes brought about by the French Revolution. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Henry IV of France Henry II of Navarre  5. Jeanne III of Navarre  Eleanor of Toledo  3. Marie de' Medici Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor  7. Joanna of Austria  Anne of Bohemia and Hungary . Biography portal. Evans, D. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Retrieved 23 August John de Razilly, resolved to go to Africa.
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Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 31 January MSN Encarta. Plates p. Preface pp. PART I. The Formation of a King p. Louis the Just Comes of Age p. French Absolutism in the Making p.
Appendix pp. Notes pp. Bibliography pp. Index pp.