Save to Library. Pieces of eight, pieces of eight: seamen's earnings and the venture economy of early modern seafaring more. Seafarers of all ranks carried their own commodities on all shipping routes, offering an opportunity to increase their income considerably. This evidence confirms that the maritime labour market was hierarchical, and that very often seafarers were poor labourers facing economic insecurity of many kinds.
Journal Name: Economic History Review. View on ehs. The Changing Fortunes of Atlantic History more. Journal Name: English Historical Review, , pp. Publication Date: Aug Atlantic World , World History , and Atlantic history. View on ehr. Introduction: Africa in the Atlantic World more. View on journals. View on dx. The Legal World of English Sailors, c. View on brill. More Info: doi: View on onlinelibrary. View on ijh.
The Politics of Piracy in the British Atlantic, c. View on ibtauris.
View on tandfonline. Facts Britannica: What's in a nation? View on historymatters. Britain: An Island Nation? British History and Maritime History. View on historiansforbritainineurope.
City Women is a major new study of the lives of ordinary women in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century London. Drawing on thousands of pages of Londoners'. City Women: Money, Sex and the Social Order in Early Modern London. By EleanorHubbard. Oxford University Press. xii + pp.
More Info: Section on the wreck of the London, built in the s, and the British navy during the seventeenth century Publication Date: Aug 11, View on bbc. Fog in Channel, Historians Isolated more.
History , European History , and British History. View on historytoday. Comparative Table of Roles aboard Merchant Vessels more. Maritime History and Sailing and Maritime history and archaeology. More Info: Ph. View on search. Book Reviews. Magarette Lincoln, British Pirates and Society, more. John C. Anita Higgie and Michael Duffy more. Cheryl A.
Fury, ed. Elaine Murphy, Ireland and the War at Sea, more. View on abdn.
Evan T. Conference and Seminar Papers. Empire and identity: British seafarers in Amsterdam and Rotterdam during the seventeenth century more. View on history.
Seafarers, Identity, and Empire in Britain and the Atlantic, c. View on reading. Not only did existing cities grow but small market towns such as Manchester , Sheffield and Leeds became cities simply by weight of population. The middle class grew rapidly in the 18th century, especially in the cities. The merchant class prospered with imperial trade. Wahrman argues that the new urban elites included two types: the gentlemanly capitalist, who participated in the national society, and the independent bourgeois, who was oriented toward the local community.
By the s a self-proclaimed middle class, with a particular sociocultural self-perception, had emerged. Thanks to increasing national wealth, upward mobility into the middle class, urbanisation, and civic stability, Britain was relatively calm and stable, certainly compared with the revolutions and wars which were convulsing the American colonies, France and other nations at the time.
Historians have emphasized the importance of religion, including the domination of the Anglican establishment. Baptists , Congregationalists , Methodists , and Quakers were all allowed to pray freely. These groups took the opportunity of the expanding empire and set up in the Thirteen Colonies , where they expanded rapidly after the First Great Awakening. In response to the religious and moral apathy of the common people, Methodist preachers set up societies divided into classes —intimate meetings where individuals were encouraged to confess their sins to one another and to build each other up.
Not only did existing cities grow but small market towns such as Manchester , Sheffield and Leeds became cities simply by weight of population. Even those who do not subscribe to the idea of a maritime proletariat have highlighted the potential for maritime history, like the Atlantic and global history paradigms, to challenge the traditional confines of national histories. Although first printed in , the release in of an inexpensive mass-market paperback version prompted a court case. Items related to City women: money, sex, and the social order in early Each chapter blends archival extracts with textual citation to compare case histories with the commentary of sermons, conduct books, and popular ballads. Religious observance declined notably in Britain during the second half of the 20th century, even with the growth of non-Christian religions due to immigration and travel see Islam in the UK.
They also took part in love feasts which allowed for the sharing of testimony and mutual surveillance of moral behavior. The success of Methodist revivals in reaching the poor and working classes concentrated their attention on spiritual goals rather than political grievances.
Scholars have recently been moving toward cultural history rather than social history. The language and self images of people are the chief targets of cultural studies. Of special importance is the concept of an emerging consumer society. Studies of middle- and upper-class manners, tastes, and fashions have proliferated, along with studies of gender, and national, and racial identities. The social changes during the Victorian era were wide-ranging and fundamental, leaving their mark not only upon the United Kingdom but upon much of the world which was under Britain's influence during the 19th century.
It can even be argued that these changes eclipsed the massive shifts in society during the 20th century; certainly many of the developments of the 20th century have their roots in the 19th. The technology of the Industrial Revolution had a great impact on society. Inventions not only introduced new industries for employment, but the products and services produced also altered society. The population of England almost doubled from Ireland's population decreased rapidly, from 8. Culturally there was a transition away from the rationalism of the Georgian period and toward romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and the arts.
The status of the poor is one area in which huge changes occurred. A good illustration of the differences between life in the Georgian and Victorian eras are the writings of two of England's greatest authors, Jane Austen and Charles Dickens. Both writers held a fascination for people, society and the details of everyday life but in Austen the poor are almost absent, mainly because they were still the rural poor, remote and almost absent from the minds of the middle classes.
For Dickens, only a few years later, the poor were his main subject, as he had partly suffered their fate. The poor now were an unavoidable part of urban society and their existence and plight could not be ignored. Industrialisation made large profits for the entrepreneurs of the times, and their success was in contrast not only to the farm workers who were in competition with imported produce but also to the aristocracy whose landowning wealth was now becoming less significant than business wealth.
The British class system created an intricate hierarchy of people which contrasted the new and old rich, the skilled and unskilled, the rural and urban and many more. Some of the first attacks on industrialisation were the Luddites ' destruction of machines, but this had less to do with factory conditions and more to do with machines mass-producing linen much quicker and cheaper than the handmade products of skilled labourers.
The army was called to the areas of Luddite activity such as Lancashire and Yorkshire and for a time there were more British soldiers controlling the Luddites than fighting Napoleon in Spain. The squalid, dangerous and oppressive conditions of many of the new Victorian factories and the surrounding communities which rose to service them became important issues of discontent, and the workers began to form trade unions to get their working conditions addressed.
The first unions were feared and distrusted, and ways were devised to ban them. The most widely known case was that of the Tolpuddle Martyrs of , an early attempt at a union whose members were tried on a spurious charge, found guilty and transported to Australia. The sentence was challenged and they were released shortly afterwards, but unions were still threatened. It was not until the formation of the TUC in and the passing of the Trade Union Act that union membership became reasonably legitimate.
Many pieces of legislation were passed to improve working conditions, including the Ten Hours Act to reduce working hours, and these culminated in the Factory Act Many of these acts resulted from the blight of Britain's agricultural depression. Beginning in and lasting until , many farmers and rural workers were hard-pressed for a stable income. With the decline in wheat prices and land productivity many countrymen were left looking for any hope of prosperity. Although the British parliament gave substantial aid to farmers and laborers, many still complained that rents were too high, wages too low, and the hours laborers were required to work were too long for their income.